Windows 10: Hypervisor Type 1 and Type 2

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  1.    1 Week Ago #1

    Hypervisor Type 1 and Type 2


    Have you ever wondered what the difference between a type 1 and type 2 hypervisor is. This drawing shows the principle

    Click image for larger version. 

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    Type 1 Hypervisors sit between the hardware and your virtual machines AND your Host OS.

    In effect, your Host OS is turned into a virtual machine as well. Each Guest OS has direct access to the native hardware via interface built into the Hypervisor.


    Type 2 Hypervisors sit between your virtual machines AND your Host OS.

    The Guest OSs do not have direct access to Host hardware, and use emulated drivers.


    There are pluses and minuses with each type:

    In the domestic consumer market, the three main players are type 1 - Hyper-V (not for Home users), and type 2 (work with Home) - virtualbox (free version), VMware workstation (free version)

    Hyper-V is really more geared to Windows virtual machines but will run alternative OSs but sound is typically not available. Biggest minus is it is not available to Home users.

    VirtualBox and VMWare have more flexibility, but require more maintenance, particularly when a build upgrade = occasionally a build upgrade "breaks" the type 2 hypervisor.

    Personally, I use Hyper-V as I use it for Insider builds, and my personal experience is it performs better than the type 2 alternatives, and less maintenance overhead. However, not so good for Linux etc.

    Nobody can say one is better than the other - it really depends on what you are doing.


    Note: Windows does not allow the two hypervisor types to coexist Fortunately, it is quite easy to create two boot entries - one which will start the type 1 Hyper-V hypervisor, and one which will suppress it starting so type 2 can be used instead.

    I have no idea if you can run two type 1 hypervisors simultaneously but I suspect not?
    Last edited by cereberus; 1 Week Ago at 13:17.
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  2.    1 Week Ago #2

    Hi there

    Great simple explanation which clearly shows the difference between the two.

    In theory I wouldn't imagine it's possible to run to type 1 Hypervisors on the same host unless like some IBM mainframes running a thing like PRISM /ESA or similar where you can split the host hardware up into separate smaller physical machines -- which is in fact a form of cheating.

    The main point of a Type 1 Hypervisor (HYPER-V is a bit of a "middle solution" as as normally seen it runs within the Windows OS environment) is that it can be a tiny OS that can even run from a thing like a small micro sd card so that around 99% of the Host's hardware can be used for the VM's without the overhead of having an OS on top of it. So type 1 Hypervisors will use Native Guest drivers and pass through cards like GPU's, I/O RAID controllers etc etc.

    Type 2 Hypevisors will use the HOST drivers and devices and the Guest will see these as sort of emulated devices (strictly speaking - virtual drivers rather than emulated ones but the end result is that the Guest sees these as valid drivers for the relevant devices) although in some cases it is possible to directly attach hardware USB devices to the GUEST and use the GUEST drivers -- this doesn't always work though if the Host's generic USB driver gives problems.

    Typically say for Sound on a Linux Guest on a type 2 HYPERVISOR - say running VMware on windows the virtual sound driver is something generic like say Sound blaster which the Guest will think that it is and will work. If you want gaming etc it's better to try and use a TYPE 1 HYPERVISOR although performance of type 2 hypervisors have improved dramatically in the last few years.

    Ideally HYPER-V would run much better as a minimal OS without the extra overhead of the Windows OS as well - however for domestic and small business users having a familiar Windows GUI makes setting up the whole thing easier.

    Optimising I/O in a type 2 hypervisor (VMware etc) is tricky as you have to convert separate file systems / directory searches etc - this can though be minimised via the use of Physical disks in the Guests which use the Guests native file system and I/O mechanisms.

    Virtual Hard disks on type 2 hypervisors can suffer a lot from fragmentation too which also reduces the efficiency of the I/O subsystem on the guest.

    For Linux running things like XEN it's also best not to load up a GUI - needs a bit of understanding of the CLI but also can be a tiny OS like Esxi and can run a whole slew of guests including Windows.

    Otherwise great stuff

    @cereberus --tried to rep you but I have to give some to others --it wouldn't let me !!!

    Agree about choice - choose what works best for you - there's no "generic" solution here - although if you want to run a whole slew of VM's concurrently a type 1 Hypervisor is likely to be your best bet.


    Cheers

    jimbo
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  3.    1 Week Ago #3

    jimbo45 said: View Post
    Hi there

    Great simple explanation which clearly shows the difference between the two.

    In theory I wouldn't imagine it's possible to run to type 1 Hypervisors on the same host unless like some IBM mainframes running a thing like PRISM /ESA or similar where you can split the host hardware up into separate smaller physical machines -- which is in fact a form of cheating.

    The main point of a Type 1 Hypervisor (HYPER-V is a bit of a "middle solution" as as normally seen it runs within the Windows OS environment) is that it can be a tiny OS that can even run from a thing like a small micro sd card so that around 99% of the Host's hardware can be used for the VM's without the overhead of having an OS on top of it. So type 1 Hypervisors will use Native Guest drivers and pass through cards like GPU's, I/O RAID controllers etc etc.

    Type 2 Hypevisors will use the HOST drivers and devices and the Guest will see these as sort of emulated devices (strictly speaking - virtual drivers rather than emulated ones but the end result is that the Guest sees these as valid drivers for the relevant devices) although in some cases it is possible to directly attach hardware USB devices to the GUEST and use the GUEST drivers -- this doesn't always work though if the Host's generic USB driver gives problems.

    Typically say for Sound on a Linux Guest on a type 2 HYPERVISOR - say running VMware on windows the virtual sound driver is something generic like say Sound blaster which the Guest will think that it is and will work. If you want gaming etc it's better to try and use a TYPE 1 HYPERVISOR although performance of type 2 hypervisors have improved dramatically in the last few years.

    Ideally HYPER-V would run much better as a minimal OS without the extra overhead of the Windows OS as well - however for domestic and small business users having a familiar Windows GUI makes setting up the whole thing easier.

    Optimising I/O in a type 2 hypervisor (VMware etc) is tricky as you have to convert separate file systems / directory searches etc - this can though be minimised via the use of Physical disks in the Guests which use the Guests native file system and I/O mechanisms.

    Virtual Hard disks on type 2 hypervisors can suffer a lot from fragmentation too which also reduces the efficiency of the I/O subsystem on the guest.

    For Linux running things like XEN it's also best not to load up a GUI - needs a bit of understanding of the CLI but also can be a tiny OS like Esxi and can run a whole slew of guests including Windows.

    Otherwise great stuff

    @cereberus --tried to rep you but I have to give some to others --it wouldn't let me !!!

    Agree about choice - choose what works best for you - there's no "generic" solution here - although if you want to run a whole slew of VM's concurrently a type 1 Hypervisor is likely to be your best bet.


    Cheers

    jimbo
    You can run HyperV in a version of windows that is not much more than a command line Our Finnish friends have more experience. I believe you can diwnload a trial version and do it free (unlimited tine I think).
    @Kari, this would make a hell of a great live TF sesson sometime ��
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  4.    1 Week Ago #4

    Hi folks

    Agree -- this would be a great TF session

    Cheers
    jimbo
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  5. Kari's Avatar
    Posts : 15,029
    Windows 10 Pro
       1 Week Ago #5

    Agreed.

    I think we have to plan a a series of Hyper-V sessions. Starting from basics, going through about everything an average user needs to know to "master" Hyper-V.

    BTW @Martin, being on Insider build 18252, I no longer have the external switch bug. File transfers, networking and downloads working normally.

    Kari
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  6.    1 Week Ago #6

    Kari said: View Post
    Agreed.

    I think we have to plan a a series of Hyper-V sessions. Starting from basics, going through about everything an average user needs to know to "master" Hyper-V.

    BTW @Martin, being on Insider build 18252, I no longer have the external switch bug. File transfers, networking and downloads working normally.

    Kari
    I have not tried 18252 yet. My next task!
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  7.    1 Week Ago #7

    cereberus said: View Post
    You can run HyperV in a version of windows that is not much more than a command line
    You can use Hyper-V Server which is free. It's possible to add GUI and so on fairly easily but adding Wi-fi and other host things is pretty much impossible. It's easier to use Pro imo.

    In either case you need a license for the guests.
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  8.    1 Week Ago #8

    Kari said: View Post
    Agreed.

    I think we have to plan a a series of Hyper-V sessions. Starting from basics, going through about everything an average user needs to know to "master" Hyper-V.

    BTW @Martin, being on Insider build 18252, I no longer have the external switch bug. File transfers, networking and downloads working normally.

    Kari

    No change for me .
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  9. Kari's Avatar
    Posts : 15,029
    Windows 10 Pro
       1 Week Ago #9

    cereberus said: View Post
    No change for me .
    Strange.

    I did a bunch of tests just this morning, downloading stuff and moving big files between two Insider build 18252 physical machines both using normal external switch, as well as between both physical machines and virtual machines on them.

    I get full download / upload speeds, and full network transfer speed.

    For me, the issue only remains on 1803 and 1809 physical and virtual machines.

    Kari
      My ComputerSystem Spec

  10.    6 Days Ago #10

    Kari said: View Post
    Strange.

    I did a bunch of tests just this morning, downloading stuff and moving big files between two Insider build 18252 physical machines both using normal external switch, as well as between both physical machines and virtual machines on them.

    I get full download / upload speeds, and full network transfer speed.

    For me, the issue only remains on 1803 and 1809 physical and virtual machines.

    Kari
    Life's a beach and then you fry :-(.
      My ComputerSystem Spec


 
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